Exploring Germany: A Central European Powerhouse

Geographical Essence

Nestled in the heart of Central Europe, Germany is a country that boasts a strategic location bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, positioned between the Netherlands and Poland, and south of Denmark. With a sprawling surface area of 357,022 sq km, it comprises mostly land (348,672 sq km) with water bodies covering 8,350 sq km. The nation shares its land boundaries, totaling 3,714 km, with nine countries including Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, and Switzerland. Germany also enjoys an extensive coastline measuring 2,389 km, enhancing its maritime interactions.

Climate and Topography

Germany’s climate is predominantly temperate and marine, characterized by cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers with the occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind making its presence felt. The country’s terrain is a tapestry of lowlands in the north, uplands in the center, and the majestic Bavarian Alps in the south. Notably, the elevation spans from Neuendorf bei Wilster at -3.5 m, marking the lowest point, to Zugspitze peak soaring at 2,963 m, the highest elevation point.

Natural Wealth and Agricultural Lands

The nation is endowed with rich natural resources including coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, and fertile timber and arable land. Agriculture is a significant sector with 48.00% of the land devoted to agricultural activities, while forests cover 31.80% of the country. As of 2012, irrigated land totaled approximately 6,500 sq km, supporting various crops and produce.

Population Dynamics

With an estimated population of over 80 million people as of July 2020, Germany stands as the most populous country in Europe. The population distribution is fairly even throughout the country, with urban centers in the western part of North Rhine-Westphalia attracting denser populations. Approximately 77.50% of the populace dwell in urban areas including major cities like Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Cologne.

Cultural and Economic Fabric

German is the official language, reflecting the nationality of the people proudly known as Germans. The country is celebrated for its contributions to art, music, literature, and philosophical thought throughout history.

Industry and Agriculture

Germany’s economic landscape is marked by its status as one of the world’s largest and most technologically advanced producers across several sectors. These include iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, and textiles. The agricultural sector thrives on producing potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; and rearing cattle, pigs, poultry.

Trade Relations and Economy

On the global economic front, Germany boasts robust trade relations, with key export partners such as the US, France, China, Netherlands, UK, Italy, Austria, Poland, and Switzerland. Its main export commodities include motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber, and plastic products. Import partners include the Netherlands, China, France, Belgium, Italy, Poland, Czechia, the US, Austria, and Switzerland, focusing on machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, and agricultural products. The electrification rate stands at 100% as of 2016, underpinning the country’s comprehensive infrastructure development. With a GDP per capita of $50,800 in 2017, Germany underscores its economic might and quality of life.


Germany, with its central European location, diverse landscape, robust economy, and rich cultural heritage, continues to play a pivotal role on the global stage. From its dynamic cities and peaceful countryside to its innovative industries and sustainable practices, Germany offers a model of development and prosperity, deeply rooted in its history yet always looking towards the future.

Country data

Country Code GM
Region Europe
Surface 357022 sq km
Land Surface 348672 sq km
Water Surface 8350 sq km
Agricultural Surface 48.00%
Forest Surface 31.80%
Lowest Elevation Point Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m
Highest Elevation Point Zugspitze 2,963 m
GDP / capita $50,800 (2017 est.)