Exploring Georgia: A Jewel at the Crossroads of Europe and Asia

Geographical Splendor and Strategic Location

Georgia, nestled in Southwestern Asia and lying on the shores of the Black Sea between Turkey and Russia, spans a modest area of approximately 69,700 square kilometers. Despite its relatively small size, the country’s location is remarkably strategic — bordered by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, and Turkey, with a mix of terrains that extend from the Great Caucasus Mountains in the north to the Lesser Caucasus in the south. The nation uniquely positions itself as part of Europe, threading a narrative that it belongs not just geographically but also culturally and historically to the European continent. This geopolitical stance situates Georgia at a fascinating crossroads, making it an intersection of cultures, histories, and geopolitics amidst Europe, the Middle East, or both.

Climate, Terrain, and Natural Beauty

The Georgian climate mirrors its diverse landscape, offering warm and pleasant weather, with regions along the Black Sea coast enjoying a Mediterranean-like climate. The country’s terrain is predominantly mountainous, featuring the majestic Great Caucasus Mountains to the north and the serene Lesser Caucasus Mountains to the south. Between these ranges lies the Kolkhet’is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland), which opens up to the Black Sea, offering fertile soils in river valley flood plains, particularly notable around the Mtkvari River Basin in the east. Georgia’s highest elevation point, Mt’a Shkhara, towers at 5,193 meters, contrasting dramatically with the lowest point at the Black Sea level.

Lush Resources and Flourishing Agriculture

Rich in natural resources, Georgia boasts timber, hydropower potential, and deposits of manganese, iron ore, and copper, with smaller quantities of coal and oil. The coastal climate and fertile soils are conducive to cultivating tea and citrus, integral components of Georgia’s agricultural output alongside grapes, hazelnuts, and vegetables. Approximately 35.50% of the country’s land is dedicated to agriculture, with forests covering an additional 39.40%, making Georgia a green haven. The irrigation practices, refined over centuries, support the cultivation on around 4,330 square kilometers (as of 2012), enhancing the country’s agricultural productivity.

Population Dynamics and Urbanization

With an estimated population of about 3,997,000 in 2019, Georgia shows a significant tilt towards urbanization, with approximately 59.50% of its people living in urban areas by 2020. The capital city Tbilisi, harboring around 1.078 million residents, stands as the primary urban agglomeration, embodying the historical, cultural, and political heartbeat of the nation. Other urban areas punctuate the Black Sea coast, with Bat’umi being among the largest, showcasing Georgia’s adaptability and resilience in terms of settlement patterns, concentrating in regions that maximize access to resources, trade, and communication.

Economic Overview: Industry, Agriculture, and Trade

Georgia’s economy is diverse, encompassing sectors ranging from steel production, machine tools, and electrical appliances to the mining of manganese, copper, and gold. The chemical sector, wood products, and the renowned Georgian wine also contribute significantly to the industrial landscape. On the agricultural front, Georgia is known for its citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, and vegetables, alongside a thriving livestock sector.

Trade relations are a crucial aspect, with Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia, China, Bulgaria, and Ukraine standing as key partners. Export products mainly include vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, and copper ores. Conversely, imports primarily consist of fuels, vehicles, machinery, grain, foods, and pharmaceuticals, highlighting a diversified trade portfolio that maintains the balance of economic dependencies with neighboring countries and beyond.

Infrastructure and Development

Insight into the development of Georgia’s infrastructure reveals an impressive electrification rate, achieving full coverage for its total population by 2016. This achievement underlines the country’s commitment to ensuring access to basic services, setting a foundation for broader social and economic development. The GDP per capita, standing at $10,700 in 2017, reflects the ongoing journey towards growth and prosperity, encapsulating the challenges and opportunities inherent in balancing tradition and modernization within a rapidly evolving global context.


Georgia is a country of rich contrasts and profound heritage, straddling the line between Europe and Asia, and embodying a unique synthesis of cultures, landscapes, and histories. With its strategic location, diverse climate, and rich natural resources, Georgia continues to carve its identity on the global stage, offering lessons in resilience, adaptation, and the enduring allure of a crossroads civilization.

Country data

Country Code GG
Region Middle East
Surface 69700 sq km
Land Surface 69700 sq km
Water Surface 0 sq km
Agricultural Surface 35.50%
Forest Surface 39.40%
Lowest Elevation Point Black Sea 0 m
Highest Elevation Point Mt’a Shkhara 5,193 m
GDP / capita $10,700 (2017 est.)