Exploring Ghana: A Jewel in Western Africa


Located in the heart of Western Africa, bordered by Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, and Togo, Ghana is a country steeped in rich history, culture, and natural resources. With a surface area of 238,533 sq km, it boasts a diverse landscape ranging from low plains to dissected plateaus in the south-central region. Ghana’s strategic positioning along the Gulf of Guinea, complemented by a 539 km coastline, has significantly influenced its climate, economy, and development over the years.

Geography and Climate

The terrain of Ghana predominantly consists of mostly low plains with a dissected plateau area in the south-central part. It enjoys a tropical climate; warm and comparatively dry along the southeast coast, hot and humid in the southwest, and hot and dry in the north. This diverse climate supports a variety of agricultural activities and has been a key factor in the country’s economic progress. The highest point in Ghana is Mount Afadjato, peaking at 885 meters above sea level, while its lowest point is at the Atlantic Ocean.

Natural Resources

Ghana is endowed with abundant natural resources that have played a central role in its economy. Among these, gold, timber, bauxite, and manganese stand out as the most significant. The nation is also known for its industrial diamonds, fish, rubber, hydropower, and petroleum. These resources have contributed to a variety of industries including mining, lumbering, aluminum smelting, and food processing.

Social and Economic Landscape

As of July 2020, Ghana’s estimated population was approximately 29.34 million people. The population distribution is notably concentrated in the southern half of the country, with the largest cities being Kumasi, Accra (the capital), and Sekondi Takoradi. Urbanization is on the rise, with an estimated 57.30% of the population living in urban areas as of 2020. Agriculture remains a vital component of the economy, with significant portions of the land dedicated to the cultivation of cocoa, cassava, corn, and several other products.

Industry and Trade

Ghana’s industrial sector includes light manufacturing, cement production, and shipbuilding, with a strong emphasis on mining and lumbering due to the country’s rich natural resources. The nation’s primary export partners are India, the United Arab Emirates, China, Switzerland, and Vietnam, with oil, gold, cocoa, and timber being the leading export commodities. Conversely, its import partners include China, the United States, and the United Kingdom, focusing on capital equipment, refined petroleum, and foodstuffs. This vibrant trade environment underscores Ghana’s significant role in the global market.

Infrastructure and Development

Development in Ghana is moving at a steady pace, with efforts directed towards improving the living standards of its citizens. Despite the advancements, about 5 million Ghanaians were without electricity as of 2017, highlighting the need for increased infrastructural development. The electrification efforts are part of Ghana’s broader agenda to ensure sustainable economic growth and improve the quality of life for its population.

Culture and Heritage

Ghana is renowned for its rich cultural heritage, which is vividly expressed through its music, dance, art, and festivals. The official languages spoken are Asante and Ewe, though English serves as the lingua franca, facilitating communication and business transactions both within and outside the country. Ghanaians are known for their hospitality and deep sense of community, making Ghana not only a hub for economic activities but also a warm and welcoming destination for visitors from around the globe.


Ghana, with its strategic location in Western Africa, serves as a beacon of progress on the continent. Its blend of natural resources, diverse climate, and vibrant culture has positioned it as a key player in Africa’s socio-economic landscape. Despite facing challenges such as the need for increased electrification and infrastructural development, Ghana continues to strive towards sustainable growth and development, securing its place as a prominent nation within Africa and beyond.

Country data

Country Code GH
Region Africa
Surface 238533 sq km
Land Surface 227533 sq km
Water Surface 11000 sq km
Agricultural Surface 69.10%
Forest Surface 21.20%
Lowest Elevation Point Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest Elevation Point Mount Afadjato 885 m
GDP / capita $4,700 (2017 est.)