Exploring Burundi: The Heart of Africa

Geography and Climate

Nestled in Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and west of Tanzania, Burundi covers a surface area of 27,830 sq km, making it a compact yet diverse country. Despite its lack of coastline, this landlocked nation boasts a varied terrain of hills and mountains, which gradually transitions to a plateau in the eastern region, along with some plains. Elevations vary significantly, from the lowest point at Lake Tanganyika (772 m) to the highest peak, Heha, at 2,670 meters above sea level.

The climate in Burundi is predominantly equatorial, characterized by moderate temperatures that typically range from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius, influenced by the country‚Äôs average altitude of approximately 1,700 meters. This climatic condition provides for two distinctive wet and dry seasons throughout the year, contributing to the nation’s rich biodiversity and agricultural productivity.

Natural Resources and Land Use

Burundi is endowed with substantial natural resources including nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, and precious metals such as gold and platinum, alongside viable agricultural land and potential hydropower. The land is primarily utilized for agriculture, with 73.30% designated as agricultural land, and a small percentage (6.60%) covered by forests. As of 2012, roughly 230 sq km of land has been developed for irrigation, enhancing the cultivation of various crops.

Agriculture and Economy

Agriculture remains the backbone of Burundi’s economy, involving a significant portion of the population. Major agricultural products include coffee and tea, which are also principal exports, along with cotton, corn, beans, sorghum, bananas, and cassava. Livestock farming is another critical component of the rural economy, providing beef, milk, and hides.

Despite the agricultural abundance, Burundi’s industries are relatively modest, focusing on the production of consumer goods like sugar, soap, and beer, as well as cement and food processing. The country’s economic challenges are further reflected in a GDP per capita of merely $700 as of 2017, highlighting the need for diversified economic development.

Demographics and Urbanization

With an estimated population of 11,865,821 in July 2020, Burundi ranks among Africa’s most densely populated countries. Population distribution is uneven, with significant clusters in the north and along the western shore of Lake Tanganyika. However, the urban population remains low at 13.70%, with Gitega serving as the capital and Bujumbura as the major urban center and economic hub.

The country recognizes Kirundi, French, and English as official languages, reflecting its colonial history and the diverse ethnic composition of its population. The education system and governmental policies have been encouraging multilingualism to foster national unity and international engagement.

Energy and Infrastructure

Infrastructure development in Burundi faces considerable challenges, with a significant portion of the population (approximately 10 million) lacking access to electricity as of 2017. This has profound implications for economic development, healthcare, and quality of life. Efforts to extend the electrification network and harness renewable energy sources are crucial for sustainable development.

International Trade and Relations

Burundi’s trade relationships are pivotal for its economy, with key export partners including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Switzerland, the UAE, and Belgium. Coffee and tea continue to dominate the export sector, followed by sugar and cotton. Conversely, imports largely consist of capital goods, petroleum products, and foodstuffs, with India, China, and several East African nations being the primary sources.


In summary, Burundi presents a complex tapestry of natural beauty, agricultural wealth, and untapped potential marred by socio-economic challenges. Its strategic location, abundant natural resources, and agricultural capabilities provide a solid foundation for growth. However, addressing infrastructural deficits, enhancing economic diversification, and improving access to basic services such as electricity are paramount for Burundi’s sustainable development and prosperity.

Country data

Country Code BY
Region Africa
Surface 27830 sq km
Land Surface 25680 sq km
Water Surface 2150 sq km
Agricultural Surface 73.30%
Forest Surface 6.60%
Lowest Elevation Point Lake Tanganyika 772 m
Highest Elevation Point Heha 2,670 m
GDP / capita $700 (2017 est.)