Exploring Belgium: A Comprehensive Overview

Geographical Essence

Belgium, a country located in Western Europe, stands as a significant region bordered by the North Sea to the northwest, nestled between France and the Netherlands. With an overall surface area of 30,528 sq km, Belgium encompasses a land area of 30,278 sq km and water covering 250 sq km. The country shares extensive land boundaries totaling 1,297 km with neighboring France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Belgium’s modest coastline stretches over 66.5 km, presenting a strategic position along the North Sea.

Climate and Terrain

The Belgian climate is temperate, characterized by mild winters, cool summers, alongside frequent rainy, humid, and cloudy conditions. The topography varies from flat coastal plains in the northwest, interspersed with central rolling hills, to the rugged terrains of the Ardennes Forest in the southeast. The diverse elevation ranges from the North Sea at 0 m to its highest point at Botrange, which peaks at 694 m. Belgium revels in its natural resources, including construction materials, silica sand, carbonates, and notably fertile arable land.

Socio-Economic Landscape

In July 2020, Belgium had an estimated population of approximately 11,720,716 people. The Belgian society is distinguished by one of the world’s highest urbanization rates, with roughly 97% of its populace residing in urban areas. The most densely populated segments are found in the northern two-thirds of the country, while the southeastern regions are less crowded. The capital, Brussels, along with Antwerp, represents major urban centers with populations exceeding millions.

Linguistic and Economic Dynamics

Belgium is unique for its trilingual official languages policy, embracing Dutch, French, and German. This linguistic diversity mirrors the country’s inclusive cultural fabric. Economically, Belgium boasts an affluent landscape with a GDP per capita of $46,600 as of 2017. The agricultural sector thrives on cultivating sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, and tobacco, in addition to livestock products like beef, veal, pork, and milk. Meanwhile, its industrial arena shines with engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, and an array of other sectors including processed foods and beverages, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, and petroleum.

Trade and Industry

Belgium’s strategic location amplifies its role in international trade. Its chief export partners include Germany, France, the Netherlands, the UK, Italy, and the US. The country specializes in exporting chemicals, machinery and equipment, finished diamonds, metals and metal products, and foodstuffs. Conversely, its import markets are driven by necessities like raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw diamonds, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, and oil products, with imports primarily coming from the Netherlands, Germany, France, the US, the UK, Ireland, and China.

Infrastructure and Agriculture

With an agriculture land encompassing 44.10% of its territory and forest land making up about 22.40%, Belgium maintains a balanced approach towards land use. The irrigated land was estimated to be about 230 sq km in 2012, supporting various agricultural activities. The nation has achieved total electrification, highlighting its commitment to providing essential services to its entire population.


Belgium’s impressive blend of geographic diversity, cultural richness, and economic vitality positions it distinctively on the global map. From its temperate climate, varied terrain, and rich natural resources to its bustling urban centers, multilingual population, and dynamic economy, Belgium encapsulates the essence of European heritage and modernity. Its pivotal role in international trade, coupled with a strong infrastructural backbone, marks Belgium as a country of significant importance in Western Europe, nurturing a legacy of prosperity and inclusivity.

Country data

Country Code BE
Region Europe
Surface 30528 sq km
Land Surface 30278 sq km
Water Surface 250 sq km
Agricultural Surface 44.10%
Forest Surface 22.40%
Lowest Elevation Point North Sea 0 m
Highest Elevation Point Botrange 694 m
GDP / capita $46,600 (2017 est.)