Exploring the Richness of Costa Rica: A Jewel in Central America

Introduction to Costa Rica

Nestled in the heart of Central America, Costa Rica is a verdant nation that boasts an array of geographical wonders, stretching from the Caribbean Sea to the North Pacific Ocean. Sharing its borders with Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south, this nation spans across a territory of approximately 51,100 sq km. Costa Rica’s land is predominantly marked by its 51060 sq km of terrain and a modest water area of 40 sq km. The country’s extensive coastline, which measures about 1,290 km, complements its diverse landscape, characterized by coastal plains and rugged mountains, housing over 100 volcanic cones – some of which remain active.

Geographical and Climatic Diversity

The climate in Costa Rica is primarily tropical and subtropical, with distinct dry (December to April) and rainy (May to November) seasons, while the highlands offer a cooler respite. This diverse climate contributes to the nation’s rich biodiversity and ecosystem. The lowest point of elevation is at sea level along the Pacific Ocean, while the highest peak, Cerro Chirripo, towers at 3,819 meters above sea level, showcasing the country’s dramatic elevation range.

Natural and Human Resources

Natural Resources

Costa Rica’s wealth of natural resources includes its extensive hydro power capabilities, fueling the nation’s energy needs. The country’s terrain, comprising 37.10% agricultural land and over half of the country covered in forests, supports a variety of agricultural and forestry activities. With irrigation systems covering approximately 1015 sq km as of 2012, Costa Rica ensures the productivity of its lands.

Population and Urbanization

As of July 2020, Costa Rica’s population was estimated to be around 5,097,988 individuals, with nearly 80.80% residing in urban settings. San Jose, the nation’s bustling capital, alone houses around 1.4 million people, accounting for roughly a fifth of the entire population. This distribution underscores the concentration of Costa Ricans in key urban areas, although numerous communities thrive in the lush, rural expanses that define much of the country.

Economic Insights

Agriculture and Industry

Costa Rica’s economy is significantly bolstered by its agriculture and industry. Key agricultural products include bananas, pineapples, coffee, and a variety of vegetables and fruits, alongside beef, poultry, and dairy products. The nation is also known for its ornamental plant and timber production. Industrial activities are diverse, ranging from medical equipment and food processing to the manufacture of textiles, construction materials, and plastic products. Together, these sectors create a robust economic foundation for the country.

Trade and Investment

The United States stands as Costa Rica’s primary export and import partner, highlighting a strong economic relationship between the two countries. Other significant trade partners include Belgium, Panama, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, China, and Mexico. Export products are varied, featuring agricultural goods, seafood, electronic components, and medical equipment, while imports mostly consist of raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum, and construction materials. This trade dynamic underscores Costa Rica’s integral role in the global market.

Culture and Language

Spanish serves as the official language, weaving together the diverse ethnicities and cultures that comprise the Costa Rican identity, affectionately known as “Ticos”. Costa Rica’s culture is a vibrant tapestry of indigenous, European, African, and Asian influences, reflected in the nation’s arts, cuisine, festivals, and traditions. The warmth and friendliness of its people, combined with the serene and picturesque landscapes, make Costa Rica a compelling destination for millions.


Costa Rica is more than just a country; it’s a vibrant, thriving testament to nature’s bounty and human resilience. From its towering volcanic peaks to its lush rainforests, from its economic endeavors to its rich cultural heritage, Costa Rica stands as a beacon of sustainability, diversity, and peace. As the world moves towards a more sustainable future, this Central American gem exemplifies what it means to live in harmony with nature, making it a model worth emulating.

Country data

Country Code CS
Region Central America
Surface 51100 sq km
Land Surface 51060 sq km
Water Surface 40 sq km
Agricultural Surface 37.10%
Forest Surface 51.50%
Lowest Elevation Point Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest Elevation Point Cerro Chirripo 3,819 m
GDP / capita $16,900 (2017 est.)