Exploring Cuba: The Jewel of the Caribbean


Nestled in the crystalline waters of the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, merely 150 kilometers south of Key West, Florida, lies the vibrant island nation of Cuba. With its rich culture, tumultuous history, and stunning natural beauty, Cuba offers a unique blend of experiences for all who step onto its shores.

Geographical Overview

Cuba’s geography is as diverse as its culture. Spanning across 110,860 square kilometers, with 109,820 square kilometers of land and 1,040 square kilometers of water, it boasts a variety of landscapes. From mostly flat to rolling plains and rugged hills to majestic mountains in the southeast, Cuba’s terrain is a testament to its natural beauty. The coastline stretches over 3,735 kilometers, offering breathtaking beaches and an abundance of marine life. Cuba’s highest point, Pico Turquino, reaches 1,974 meters above sea level, providing stunning vistas for those who venture to its peak.

Climate and Natural Resources

Enjoying a tropical climate moderated by trade winds, Cuba has a dry season from November to April and a rainy season from May to October. This climate supports a rich variety of natural resources including cobalt, nickel, iron ore, chromium, copper, and more. With 60.30% of land dedicated to agriculture and 27.30% to forests, Cuba’s natural wealth extends beyond its mineral deposits, supporting diverse agricultural products and a robust forestry sector.

Demographics and Culture

As of July 2020, Cuba’s population was estimated at 11,059,062. The Cuban people, known for their warmth and hospitality, have a large portion of their population residing in urban areas, approximately 77.20%, with the capital city of Havana being the most populous. Spanish is the official language, reflecting the country’s rich historical ties to Spain. Population distribution is relatively even, with significant clusters in the larger towns and cities.

The Economy: An Overview

Cuba’s economy is noteworthy for its focus on industries such as petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, and tobacco, among others. Agricultural production remains a staple of the economy, including sugar, tobacco, citrus, and coffee. The country has developed a varied industrial sector that spans from construction and steel to cement and agricultural machinery. Additionally, Cuba’s strategic location makes it a vital player in international trade, boasting a mix of export and import partners globally.

Society and Infrastructure

The Cuban government has made significant strides in infrastructure, achieving a 100% electrification rate as of 2016. This progress is mirrored in the steady growth of its GDP per capita, which was estimated at $12,300 in 2016. Urbanization has also seen a major uptick, with major urban areas like Havana experiencing growth and development, pointing towards an evolving urban landscape.


Cuba stands as a testament to resilience and vibrancy. From its stunning geography and tropical climate to its diverse economy and dynamic societal structures, Cuba is more than just a tourist destination; it is a country with a rich cultural heritage and promising future. As it continues to navigate the complexities of the 21st century, Cuba retains its allure, beckoning travelers and scholars alike to its shores.

Country data

Country Code CU
Region Central America
Surface 110860 sq km
Land Surface 109820 sq km
Water Surface 1040 sq km
Agricultural Surface 60.30%
Forest Surface 27.30%
Lowest Elevation Point Caribbean Sea 0 m
Highest Elevation Point Pico Turquino 1,974 m
GDP / capita $12,300 (2016 est.)