Exploring Canada: A Land of Natural Wonders and Economic Prosperity

Geography and Climate

Canada, a vast country located in Northern North America, is bordered by three mighty oceans: the North Atlantic Ocean to the east, the North Pacific Ocean to the west, and the icy Arctic Ocean to the north. Its proximity to the United States is marked by an extensive land border of 8,893 km, including 2,477 km with Alaska. Canada’s expansive terrain covers a total surface area of 9,984,670 sq km, of which 9,093,507 sq km is land and 891,163 sq km is water. This geographical colossus boasts the longest coastline in the world, stretching over 202,080 km.

The climate across this massive country varies widely, from the temperate zones in the south to the subarctic and arctic regions in the north. The terrain is similarly diverse, characterized largely by plains, with imposing mountains to the west and gentle lowlands in the southeast. Canada’s highest elevation point is Mount Logan, towering at 5,959 m, while its lowest is the Atlantic Ocean at sea level.

Natural Resources and Land Use

Canada is endowed with an abundance of natural resources, making it a global leader in the extraction and export of minerals such as bauxite, iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, and gold. It also possesses significant reserves of rare earth elements, potash, diamonds, and silver. In addition to mineral wealth, Canada has vast forests, wildlife, and fisheries, alongside rich deposits of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and hydropower potential. Agricultural land constitutes 6.80% of the country’s total land area, with forest land covering 34.10%.

Agriculture and Industry

In terms of agriculture, Canada is a major producer of wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, and vegetables. The country is also renowned for its dairy products, fish, and forest products. The industrial sector is highly diversified, featuring transportation equipment, chemicals, minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, and natural gas among its outputs.

Population and Urbanization

With an estimated population of 37,694,085 as of July 2020, Canada exhibits a vast majority of its populace living within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States. The most densely populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia. Approximately 81.60% of Canadians live in urban areas, highlighting a significant trend towards urbanization. Major urban centers include Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, and the capital city, Ottawa.

The Canadian identity is enriched by its dual official languages, English and French, reflecting the country’s colonial history and multicultural heritage. The distribution of Canadians near the U.S. border facilitates economic ties and cultural exchanges between the two countries, while also posing challenges in managing this extensive boundary.

Economic Landscape

Canada has a strong and diversified economy, with a GDP per capita of $48,400 in 2017. The United States remains Canada’s largest trading partner, receiving 76.4% of Canadian exports and supplying 51.5% of its imports in 2017. China also plays a significant role in Canada’s international trade, serving both as a key export destination and a major source of imports.

The country’s export portfolio is broad, spanning motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment, and a variety of natural resources. Imports include machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, and durable consumer goods. The complete electrification of the Canadian population by 2016 underscores the country’s commitment to infrastructure development and technological advancement.


Canada stands as a testament to the beauty and bounty of nature, complemented by a resilient and dynamic economy. Its strategic location, diverse climate, and rich natural resources have shaped a nation that is both a guardian of environmental treasures and a formidable player on the global economic stage. With its vibrant cities, vast wilderness, and innovative industries, Canada continues to attract people from around the world, offering opportunities for prosperity, adventure, and a harmonious way of life.

Country data

Country Code CA
Region North America
Surface 9984670 sq km
Land Surface 9093507 sq km
Water Surface 891163 sq km
Agricultural Surface 6.80%
Forest Surface 34.10%
Lowest Elevation Point Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest Elevation Point Mount Logan 5,959 m
GDP / capita $48,400 (2017 est.)